# Conductivity Calculations

Previous blogs have talked about heat conductivity in very general terms to produce a foundation for this somewhat more technical view for those of you who like formulas and numbers. Conductive heat transfer can be expressed with “Fourier’s Law” q = k A dT / s where q = heat transfer (W, J/s, Btu/hr) A …

# Heat Conductivity and Convection

Heat conductivity is a measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat within itself.  For example, if you heat one end of a short piece of copper wire, the heat is quickly distributed throughout the wire by conduction.  This can be easily demonstrated using a short piece (1 to 2 inches) of heavy gage …

# Heat – Definitions and Concepts

Temperature has been identified as one of the important variables in cleaning – arguably the most important.  So I thought it might be worth some time to develop a little understanding of heat – – especially how it is generated and transmitted. Heat is a form of energy.  The amount of heat contained in an object …

We in the ultrasonics industry have long been aware of an effect which is sometimes called “ultrasonic shadowing.”  In general, this is what happens when parts being cleaned are positioned in such a way that parts cast an “ultrasonic shadow” which prevents parts in the shadow from being effectively cleaned.  This phenomenon, although we know …

# Heat Alternatives for Cleaning

I have stressed the importance of temperature to cleaning processes many times in previous blogs.  This blog will discuss the heat source options for achieving and maintaining the temperatures required for effective cleaning. Electric – Electric heat is, without a doubt, the most prevalent heat alternative used for cleaning applications.  This is because electric heaters are relatively inexpensive, relatively small, …

# Heat Capacity and Temperature Control

How Much Heat? – It is common for the design engineer to calculate the heat requirement for the tanks of a cleaning system based on the tank volume, the target operating temperature and the desired heat-up time from ambient temperature to operating temperature taking into account, of course, heat losses through the tank walls and …

This series of blogs about automation will address automation as an “add-on” or accessory to an existing or planned cleaning system.  In many cleaning systems, automation, or at least partial automation, is an integral part of the system as it is required for effective cleaning process.  This is especially true of spray washers which often rely …

# Automation – Introduction

Many cleaning systems are automated.  There are a number of benefits that can be realized through automation – Reduced labor cost Increased throughput Improved process consistency Reduced Labor Cost The cleaning process is inherently labor intensive.  Parts to be cleaned must be prepared and fixtured or put into suitable carriers.  They must then be moved …

# What is a “Closed Loop” cleaning system?

The ultimate “closed-loop” cleaning system would produce no effluents requiring disposal. In many manufacturing facilities, disposing of waste liquid containing chemicals and other contaminants removed from parts being cleaned is either very costly or just not possible using municipal sewer or other available facilities.  Even in the best cases, most cleaning system effluents require pre-treatment prior …

# Ultrasonics – Frequency vs. Exposure Time

The blog about maximizing the effect of multiple frequency ultrasonics explained in some detail the mechanics of cleaning using multiple ultrasonic frequencies and the benefits of sequencing through a series of frequencies multiple times to achieve maximum cleaning effect.  This blog will further explore these benefits especially in cases where extended exposure of a part …