# Electricity Behind the Walls

Electricity is not something we give considerable attention to in our daily lives.  At home or at work (or wherever) there are electrical outlets.  We simply plug devices into the outlets and the devices light up, heat, rotate, vibrate, charge or do whatever they’re supposed to do.  What’s behind the outlet, generally, is of little concern …

# Three Phase Power – Why and How

Three phase power is commonly used where large amounts of electrical power are required.  Examples are power transmission lines and large industrial machines which require considerable power.  What is three phase power anyway? Let’s start by thinking of a two wire transmission line as shown below connecting the source of alternating current power to the …

# A Little About RMS (Root Mean Squared)

Most of us are aware that the power we get from the power line coming into our house or factory comes as alternating current.  Basically, the voltage on the “hot” wire as referenced to ground varies, going negative then positive 60 times each second (60 Hz). The benefit and compelling argument for using alternating current …

# Ultrasonics – The Trouble With Watts – Part 2

As discussed in a previous blog, one problem with watts is that watts do not equal energy.  Let’s carry that thought a little further again using the vehicle analogy I put forth in the initial blog of this series. In the ultrasonic world it is common to associate the effectiveness of an ultrasonic cleaning tank its …

We in the ultrasonics industry have long been aware of an effect which is sometimes called “ultrasonic shadowing.”  In general, this is what happens when parts being cleaned are positioned in such a way that parts cast an “ultrasonic shadow” which prevents parts in the shadow from being effectively cleaned.  This phenomenon, although we know …

# The Trouble With Watts

Some time ago I wrote a paper entitled “What is a Watt.”  Although this paper seems lost in history (I can not find a copy of it), I can remember the point that I was trying to make when I wrote it.  In essence, it made the case that a watt is only an instantaneous …

# Ultrasonic Performance – Ceramic Ring Test – Post Script

I usually try to make sure I’ve done my research prior to posting a blog.  As I was thinking about the post about the ceramic ring test, however, it occurred to me that there are a couple of variables that I had not previously considered – – the pencil and the means of applying the markings to the …

# Ultrasonic Performance – Ceramic Ring Test

Other than to say that there is no perfect, infallible way, the blog has not addressed assessing ultrasonic performance.  In an earlier blog, I did suggest that any of many methods are appropriate to compare ultrasonic performance of an ultrasonic system from day to day but that no further inference should be made. One test that’s …

# The Trouble With Watts – Efficiency

One of the problems with using the number of watts consumed to produce a particular output of another form of energy (light, motion, heat, etc) is that there are always losses when one form of energy is converted to another.  Although the law of conservation of energy always applies, energy lost in conversion to other forms of …

# Ultrasonic Machining – A New Use for Ultrasonics?

Over the years, there have been several anecdotal references to otherwise unexplained changes in the properties of surfaces exposed to ultrasonic energy in a liquid.  In some cases, it would make sense that the change was due to increased cleanliness.  In others, however, the benefit of cleanliness alone would seem questionable.  One incident in particular …