# Ultrasonic Power vs. Cavitation Density

The notion persists that more power is better in ultrasonic cleaning applications.  In the past, this may have been an absolute as the amount of power available was often limited by the limitations of the equipment that was available.  As we discussed in a recent blog however, today’s ultrasonic equipment is no longer limited in power …

# Conductivity Calculations

Previous blogs have talked about heat conductivity in very general terms to produce a foundation for this somewhat more technical view for those of you who like formulas and numbers. Conductive heat transfer can be expressed with “Fourier’s Law” q = k A dT / s where q = heat transfer (W, J/s, Btu/hr) A …

# Heat Conductivity and Convection

Heat conductivity is a measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat within itself.  For example, if you heat one end of a short piece of copper wire, the heat is quickly distributed throughout the wire by conduction.  This can be easily demonstrated using a short piece (1 to 2 inches) of heavy gage …

# Heat – Definitions and Concepts

Temperature has been identified as one of the important variables in cleaning – arguably the most important.  So I thought it might be worth some time to develop a little understanding of heat – – especially how it is generated and transmitted. Heat is a form of energy.  The amount of heat contained in an object …

We in the ultrasonics industry have long been aware of an effect which is sometimes called “ultrasonic shadowing.”  In general, this is what happens when parts being cleaned are positioned in such a way that parts cast an “ultrasonic shadow” which prevents parts in the shadow from being effectively cleaned.  This phenomenon, although we know …

# Heat Alternatives for Cleaning

I have stressed the importance of temperature to cleaning processes many times in previous blogs.  This blog will discuss the heat source options for achieving and maintaining the temperatures required for effective cleaning. Electric – Electric heat is, without a doubt, the most prevalent heat alternative used for cleaning applications.  This is because electric heaters are relatively inexpensive, relatively small, …

# Heat Capacity and Temperature Control

How Much Heat? – It is common for the design engineer to calculate the heat requirement for the tanks of a cleaning system based on the tank volume, the target operating temperature and the desired heat-up time from ambient temperature to operating temperature taking into account, of course, heat losses through the tank walls and …