# Questioning Particle Generation Due to Cavitation Erosion as a Source of Contamination

Ultrasonic cleaning is widely used for removing particles from surfaces.  It is generally agreed that the high energy of implosions of cavitation bubbles break the bonds holding particles to the surface being cleaned and that liquid motion (streaming) carries the particles away once they have been dislodged.  However, it is also well known that ultrasonic cavitation …

# Conductivity Calculations

Previous blogs have talked about heat conductivity in very general terms to produce a foundation for this somewhat more technical view for those of you who like formulas and numbers. Conductive heat transfer can be expressed with “Fourier’s Law” q = k A dT / s where q = heat transfer (W, J/s, Btu/hr) A …

# Heat Conductivity and Convection

Heat conductivity is a measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat within itself.  For example, if you heat one end of a short piece of copper wire, the heat is quickly distributed throughout the wire by conduction.  This can be easily demonstrated using a short piece (1 to 2 inches) of heavy gage …

# Exhausting Gasses Produced by the Cleaning Process

In many industrial cleaning processes it is necessary to exhaust emissions that unavoidably result from the cleaning process.  The reasons for exhaust can take on a large range – Remove heat that would otherwise raise the temperature in the cleaning area Remove humidity that would otherwise raise the humidity in the cleaning area Remove toxic fumes that might otherwise be dangerous …

# How do you measure surface tension?

In the world of industrial cleaning technology we talk about surface tension a lot! So much so, in fact, that it is hard to enter into any discussion of cleaning without having the subject of surface tension arise.  In cleaning chemistry, for example, we are always looking for lower surface tension to promote penetration of small surface features …

# Surface Tension and/or Wettability

A few days ago, I sat down to write what I thought would be a simple explanation of surface tension and how it is measured in the laboratory (a blog which will be published shortly if I can figure all of this out).  In doing the normal background research, however, I started to see contradictions …

# Reliability of Plumbing Fittings – Threaded vs. Compression

Wherever there are liquids there are leaks – it’s inevitable.  Leaks, of course cost money in downtime and repair of industrial cleaning systems.  So, you ask, what is the best defense against leaks. Most leaks occur where one piece of plumbing connects with another.  A pipe to a valve, unions, connections to pumps and filters and …

# Ultrasonic Drying – Not Yet but Possible???

There has been a lot of buzz lately on the internet regarding work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a dryer that uses ultrasonics instead of heat to dry things.  The major thrust seems to be to replace the conventional domestic clothes dryer (which uses heat to evaporate water) with one that uses ultrasonics …

# Venting

The environment in the area of an industrial cleaning system is often not a “healthy” one for personnel or equipment.  Caustic and acidic cleaning chemistries rise as mist above cleaning processes along with humidity and heat.  Although our first thought is to protect personnel from these hazards, the equipment can also suffer serious consequences as a …

# Laminar Flow

When a liquid or a gas flows uniformly and without turbulation, the result is called “laminar flow.” The most visual example of laminar flow for most of us are those arching water displays where perfectly shaped slugs of crystal clear water flys gracefully through the air from one point to another. When I first saw this effect at …